Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction in which the world as we know it has been devastated and changed by war, pandemic, or some ecological or astronomical event. It's known well by it's currently popular sub genres, dystopian and Utopian. Dystopian which depicts a futuristic society where you wouldn't want to live... And Utopian which depicts a futuristic society where everything is peaceful and you might want to live there; except in Utopian is usually some devastating plot twist where you find out why peace isn't always better.
Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton is a classic example of scientific innovation gone awry. Scientists in science fiction are constantly creating, mutating, and designing must have products and creatures that turn around and bite humanity in the ass. Sometimes literally.
The Map of Time by Felix.J Palma, is both steampunk and speculative fiction. Steampunk is one of my favorites, it usually involves clockwork in steam powered inventions sometimes but not always located in historical locales. Speculative fiction usually takes ( not always) place in the past and examines "what if this happened?" And "how would it affect the future?"
And I can't leave out alien invasions that would just be crazy. The Host by Stephanie Meyer is the science-fiction romance, young adults safe, and light on the science bit, but I didn't like Enders Game by Orson Scott Card and War of the Worlds by HG Wells felt a little on the nose. People have been planning for hostile invasion by aliens longer than people have been planning for the zombie apocalypse and let's face it: we're really excited about the possibility of a zombie apocalypse.
As for my claim that science-fiction inspires real inventions the iPad was first seen on episode of Star Trek. The technology in Jurassic Park is being used by zoos to resurrect endangered species. Jules Verne imagined the submarine before it was invented.
How do you feel about science-fiction place in our world?